Herpes Keratitis : Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Herpes Keratitis

Herpes keratitis is a viral infection that affects the cornea, the transparent dome-shaped layer that covers the front of the eye. This condition is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), which causes cold sores and genital herpes. Herpes keratitis can lead to significant visual impairment and even blindness if not treated promptly. This article will discuss the causes, symptoms, and prevention of herpes keratitis.

Causes of Herpes Keratitis

Herpes keratitis is caused by the herpes simplex virus, which is highly contagious and can be easily spread through direct contact with an infected person’s skin, saliva, or other bodily fluids. Once the virus enters the body, it can remain dormant in the nerve cells for years, only to reactivate later and cause an outbreak.

Several factors can trigger a herpes keratitis outbreak, including stress, illness, hormonal changes, and exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. People with weakened immune systems, such as HIV/AIDS, are at higher risk of developing herpes keratitis.

Several factors can trigger a herpes keratitis outbreak:

  1. Stress: Emotional stress can weaken the immune system, making it easier for the virus to reactivate and cause an outbreak.
  2. Illness: A weakened immune system due to an illness like the flu or a cold can make a person more susceptible to a herpes keratitis outbreak.
  3. Hormonal changes: Fluctuations in hormone levels, such as during menstruation or pregnancy, can trigger an outbreak.
  4. Exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) radiation: Sunlight and UV radiation can trigger an outbreak in some people, especially those with a history of cold sores.
  5. Eye injury: An injury to the eye, such as a scratch or foreign object in the eye, can create an opening for the virus to enter and cause an infection.
  6. Eye surgery: Certain eye surgeries, such as cataract surgery, can trigger an outbreak of herpes keratitis in some people.
  7. Weakened immune system: People with a weakened immune system, such as HIV/AIDS, are at higher risk of developing herpes keratitis.

Symptoms of Herpes Keratitis

The symptoms of herpes keratitis can vary in severity depending on the type of infection. Here are some common symptoms:

  1. Eye pain: People with herpes keratitis may experience eye pain or discomfort, particularly when looking at bright lights.
  2. Redness: The affected eye may be red and appear inflamed.
  3. Sensitivity to light: People with herpes keratitis may experience sensitivity to light, also known as photophobia.
  4. Blurred vision: The infection can cause vision to become blurred or cloudy.
  5. Eye discharge: The eye may produce discharge, which can be clear, yellow, or green.
  6. Eye ulcers: In some cases, the infection can cause ulcers to form on the eye’s surface.
  7. Eye swelling: The eye may become swollen and appear puffy.
  8. Eye tearing: The eye may tear excessively.

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, seeking medical attention from an eye doctor or healthcare provider as soon as possible is essential. Early treatment can help prevent the infection from causing permanent damage to the eye.

Prevention of Herpes Keratitis

Herpes keratitis is a viral eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is a common cause of corneal blindness worldwide. To prevent herpes keratitis, here are some tips:

  1. Good hygiene: Practicing good hygiene can help prevent the spread of the herpes simplex virus. Always wash your hands thoroughly before touching your eyes or face.
  2. Avoid sharing personal items: Do not share towels, handkerchiefs, or any other personal items with anyone with the herpes simplex virus. This can help prevent the spread of the virus.
  3. Avoid close contact with infected individuals: Avoid close contact with individuals with an active herpes simplex virus infection, especially if they have a cold sore or are experiencing other symptoms.
  4. Use protective eyewear: Wear protective eyewear, such as goggles, when participating in sports or activities that could result in eye injury.
  5. Avoid UV radiation: Protect your eyes from ultraviolet radiation by wearing sunglasses that block 99-100% of UVA and UVB rays.
  6. Manage stress: Stress can trigger herpes simplex virus outbreaks. Manage stress by practicing relaxation techniques like deep breathing, yoga, or meditation.
  7. Follow treatment recommendations: If you have the herpes simplex virus, follow your doctor’s treatment recommendations to reduce the likelihood of a recurrence. Antiviral medications can help prevent outbreaks and reduce the severity of symptoms.

If you have a history of herpes simplex virus infection, it is essential to inform your eye doctor so they can monitor your eye health and take appropriate precautions.

Treatment of Herpes Keratitis

The treatment of herpes keratitis will depend on the severity of the infection. Here are some standard treatment options:

  1. Antiviral medications: Antiviral medications can help reduce the severity and duration of the infection. These medications can be in eye drops, ointments, or oral medications. Examples include acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir.
  2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids can reduce inflammation and swelling in the eye. They are usually prescribed in combination with antiviral medications.
  3. Lubricating eye drops: Lubricating eye drops can help relieve symptoms such as dryness and irritation.
  4. Debridement: In severe cases of herpes keratitis, the infected tissue may need to be removed or scraped off to promote healing.
  5. Corneal transplant: In rare cases where the infection has caused significant damage to the cornea, a corneal transplant may be necessary to restore vision.

You must seek medical attention as soon as possible if you suspect you have herpes keratitis. Early treatment can help prevent the infection from causing permanent damage to the eye.


Herpes keratitis is a severe condition that can cause significant vision loss if not treated promptly. While there is no cure for the herpes simplex virus, taking steps to reduce the risk of infection and seeking prompt medical attention if you develop symptoms can help prevent complications. If you experience any symptoms of herpes keratitis, such as eye redness, pain, or sensitivity to light, contact your eye doctor immediately.